Posts Tagged ‘Expression’

Biomineralization-related specialization of hemocytes and mantle tissues of the Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Anna V. Ivanina, Halina I. Falfushynska, Elia Beniash, Helen Piontkivska, and Inna M. SokolovaMolluscan exoskeleton (shell) plays multiple important roles including structural support, protection from predators and stressors, and physiological homeost…

TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS FOR ENHANCED BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

Genetically modified tobacco plants are provided having altered hexose accumulation. Methods are provided for producing ethanol from fermentation of tobacco biomass derived from the tobacco plants having altered hexose accumulation. The altered hexose …

The role of fatty acid β-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis

Lymphatic vessels are lined by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), and are critical for health. However, the role of metabolism in lymphatic development has not yet been elucidated. Here we report that in transgenic mouse models, LEC-specific loss of CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid β-oxidation, impairs lymphatic development. LECs use fatty acid β-oxidation to proliferate and for epigenetic regulation of lymphatic marker expression during LEC differentiation. Mechanistically, the transcription factor PROX1 upregulates CPT1A expression, which increases acetyl coenzyme A production dependent on fatty acid β-oxidation. Acetyl coenzyme A is used by the histone acetyltransferase p300 to acetylate histones at lymphangiogenic genes. PROX1–p300 interaction facilitates preferential histone acetylation at PROX1-target genes. Through this metabolism-dependent mechanism, PROX1 mediates epigenetic changes that promote lymphangiogenesis. Notably, blockade of CPT1 enzymes inhibits injury-induced lymphangiogenesis, and replenishing acetyl coenzyme A by supplementing acetate rescues this process in vivo.

Synthetic recording and in situ readout of lineage information in single cells

Reconstructing the lineage relationships and dynamic event histories of individual cells within their native spatial context is a long-standing challenge in biology. Many biological processes of interest occur in optically opaque or physically inaccessible contexts, necessitating approaches other than direct imaging. Here, we describe a new synthetic system that enables cells to record lineage information and event histories in the genome in a format that can be subsequently read out in single cells in situ. This system, termed Memory by Engineered Mutagenesis with Optical In situ Readout (MEMOIR), is based on a set of barcoded recording elements termed scratchpads. The state of a given scratchpad can be irreversibly altered by Cas9-based targeted mutagenesis, and read out in single cells through multiplexed single-molecule RNA fluorescence hybridization (smFISH). To demonstrate a proof of principle of MEMOIR, we engineered mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to contain multiple scratchpads and other recording components. In these cells, scratchpads were altered in a progressive and stochastic fashion as cells proliferated. Analysis of the final states of scratchpads in single cells in situ enabled reconstruction of the lineage trees of cell colonies. Combining analysis of endogenous gene expression with lineage reconstruction in the same cells further allowed inference of the dynamic rates at which ES cells switch between two gene expression states. Finally, using simulations, we showed how parallel MEMOIR systems operating in the same cell can enable recording and readout of dynamic cellular event histories. MEMOIR thus provides a versatile platform for information recording and in situ, single cell readout across diverse biological systems.

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