Posts Tagged ‘examples’

Scientists in Need of Arts Training

How can universities train our scientists, technologists and engineers to engage with society rather than perform as cogs in the engine of economic development? Author Richard Lachman asks for educational system to require STEM students to take art and humanities courses, not as an attempt to “broaden minds” but as a necessary discussion of morals, ethics and responsibility.

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Share Your Research on a Blog

How can researchers provide information about their studies in ways that would be useful and interesting to prospective and current research participants? With that question in my mind, MethodSpace’s Janet Salmons began to explore the potential for blogs to recruit and inform participants. As with almost any online exploration, she discovered a much broader potential for blogs in the academic world.

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SAM-dependent enzyme-catalysed pericyclic reactions in natural product biosynthesis

Pericyclic reactions—which proceed in a concerted fashion through a cyclic transition state—are among the most powerful synthetic transformations used to make multiple regioselective and stereoselective carbon–carbon bonds. They have been widely applied to the synthesis of biologically active complex natural products containing contiguous stereogenic carbon centres. Despite the prominence of pericyclic reactions in total synthesis, only three naturally existing enzymatic examples (the intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction, and the Cope and the Claisen rearrangements) have been characterized. Here we report a versatile S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent enzyme, LepI, that can catalyse stereoselective dehydration followed by three pericyclic transformations: intramolecular Diels–Alder and hetero-Diels–Alder reactions via a single ambimodal transition state, and a retro-Claisen rearrangement. Together, these transformations lead to the formation of the dihydropyran core of the fungal natural product, leporin. Combined in vitro enzymatic characterization and computational studies provide insight into how LepI regulates these bifurcating biosynthetic reaction pathways by using SAM as the cofactor. These pathways converge to the desired biosynthetic end product via the (SAM-dependent) retro-Claisen rearrangement catalysed by LepI. We expect that more pericyclic biosynthetic enzymatic transformations remain to be discovered in naturally occurring enzyme ‘toolboxes’. The new role of the versatile cofactor SAM is likely to be found in other examples of enzyme catalysis.

Munson’s Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, Global Edition

  Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 8e Global Edition offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics, and strong focus on effective learning. The text enable…

Estimating in Heavy Construction Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Foundations

  This book presents the theoretical background as well as best practice examples of estimating in heavy construction. The examples stem from practitioners in international large-scale construction projects. As distinct from other publicat…

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