Posts Tagged ‘dynamic’

Fatigue and recovery measured with dynamic properties vs isometric force: effects of exercise intensity [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Renata L. Krüger, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Libia Marcela Jaimes, Brian R. MacIntosh, Pierre Samozino, and Guillaume Y. MilletWhile fatigue can be defined as an exercise-related decrease in the maximal power or isometric force, most studies have …

The quantum properties of non-point particles

Quantum theory: it’s unreal We know that everything in the universe including particles have physical size. Even so for the past 50 years, the Standard Model of particle physics which many say has given us the most complete mathematical description of the particles and forces that shape our world ignores this fact and treats them […]

The post The quantum properties of non-point particles appeared first on The Imagineer's Chronicles.

Synthetic recording and in situ readout of lineage information in single cells

Reconstructing the lineage relationships and dynamic event histories of individual cells within their native spatial context is a long-standing challenge in biology. Many biological processes of interest occur in optically opaque or physically inaccessible contexts, necessitating approaches other than direct imaging. Here, we describe a new synthetic system that enables cells to record lineage information and event histories in the genome in a format that can be subsequently read out in single cells in situ. This system, termed Memory by Engineered Mutagenesis with Optical In situ Readout (MEMOIR), is based on a set of barcoded recording elements termed scratchpads. The state of a given scratchpad can be irreversibly altered by Cas9-based targeted mutagenesis, and read out in single cells through multiplexed single-molecule RNA fluorescence hybridization (smFISH). To demonstrate a proof of principle of MEMOIR, we engineered mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to contain multiple scratchpads and other recording components. In these cells, scratchpads were altered in a progressive and stochastic fashion as cells proliferated. Analysis of the final states of scratchpads in single cells in situ enabled reconstruction of the lineage trees of cell colonies. Combining analysis of endogenous gene expression with lineage reconstruction in the same cells further allowed inference of the dynamic rates at which ES cells switch between two gene expression states. Finally, using simulations, we showed how parallel MEMOIR systems operating in the same cell can enable recording and readout of dynamic cellular event histories. MEMOIR thus provides a versatile platform for information recording and in situ, single cell readout across diverse biological systems.

T-cell acute leukaemia exhibits dynamic interactions with bone marrow microenvironments

It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance. We observed highly dynamic cellular interactions and promiscuous distribution of leukaemia cells that migrated across the bone marrow, without showing any preferential association with bone marrow sub-compartments. Unexpectedly, this behaviour was maintained throughout disease development, from the earliest bone marrow seeding to response and resistance to chemotherapy. Our results reveal that T-ALL cells do not depend on specific bone marrow microenvironments for propagation of disease, nor for the selection of chemo-resistant clones, suggesting that a stochastic mechanism underlies these processes. Yet, although T-ALL infiltration and progression are independent of the stroma, accumulated disease burden leads to rapid, selective remodelling of the endosteal space, resulting in a complete loss of mature osteoblastic cells while perivascular cells are maintained. This outcome leads to a shift in the balance of endogenous bone marrow stroma, towards a composition associated with less efficient haematopoietic stem cell function. This novel, dynamic analysis of T-ALL interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo, supported by evidence from human T-ALL samples, highlights that future therapeutic interventions should target the migration and promiscuous interactions of cancer cells with the surrounding microenvironment, rather than specific bone marrow stroma, to combat the invasion by and survival of chemo-resistant T-ALL cells.

Apple patents a paper bag: meet the iBag

In a move that’s likely to inspire more internet snark than wait lines around its stores, Apple has filed a patent for a white paper bag. Actually, there’s a very good reason the tech giant has filed the patent. The paper bag will be made from 60 percent recycled materials. White paper bags created from […]

The post Apple patents a paper bag: meet the iBag appeared first on Redorbit.

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