Posts Tagged ‘Amplitude’

The quantum properties of non-point particles

Quantum theory: it’s unreal We know that everything in the universe including particles have physical size. Even so for the past 50 years, the Standard Model of particle physics which many say has given us the most complete mathematical description of the particles and forces that shape our world ignores this fact and treats them […]

The post The quantum properties of non-point particles appeared first on The Imagineer's Chronicles.

Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour

The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours.

Smart Mechanical Dipole: a device for the measurement of sphere motion in behavioral and neurophysiological experiments [METHODS [amp ] TECHNIQUES]

Hendrik Herzog, Joachim Mogdans, and Horst Bleckmann
Fluid motion and pressure fields induced by vibrating spheres are frequently used to investigate the function of biological mechanosensory systems and artificial sensors. The calibration of the sphe…

Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Marianne E. Porter, Randy H. Ewoldt, and John H. Long Jr
During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we…

Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Marianne E. Porter, Randy H. Ewoldt, and John H. Long Jr
During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we…

Powered by WordPress | Designed by: video game | Thanks to search engine optimization, seo agency and Privater Sicherheitsdienst