Posts Tagged ‘movements’

New device lets paralyzed man move his arm with just his thoughts

A paralyzed 56-year-old Cleveland man has purportedly become the first person ever to regain the use of his hand and arm with the assistance of a brain-computer interface, according to new led by doctors from Case Western Reserve University and two Ohio-based hospitals. The patient’s name is Bill Kochevar, and according to NPR, he was […]

The post New device lets paralyzed man move his arm with just his thoughts appeared first on Redorbit.

The People and the State

The win for Donald Trump in the U.S. presidential election raises many questions about democracy and the ways in which populist movements and protest against the state are emerging in the 21st century. His success reflects a trend for mass protests against existing regimes that have been endemic in both democratic and non-democratic states over the […]

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A brain–spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates

Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, and have thus restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges. Recently, it was shown in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion. Here we interface leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spine interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in non-human primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array in the leg area of the motor cortex and with a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spine interface in intact (uninjured) monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spine interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralysed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spine interface have all been approved for investigational applications in similar human research, suggesting a practical translational pathway for proof-of-concept studies in people with spinal cord injury.

Does The Motor Cortex Inhibit Movement?

A new paper could prompt a rethink of a basic tenet of neuroscience. It is widely believed that the motor cortex, a region of the cerebral cortex, is responsible for producing movements, by sending instructions to other brain regions and ultimately to …

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