Posts Tagged ‘Cancer’

Synthesizing A Natural Compound That Hunts Down Cancer Stem Cells

Scientists in China have synthesized a natural cyclic compound that targets pancreatic cancer stem cells.

CT scans could help smokers kick the habit, study finds

Smokers who undergo a CT scan of their lungs are more likely to kick the habit than those who opt against the screening, which could detect lung cancer at an early stage, new research led by experts from Cardiff University and published in the journal Thorax has discovered. The study involved 4,055 individuals between the […]

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New drug can give you a tan without getting any sun

Building upon work they completed more than a decade ago, a team of researchers has come up with a new drug that can mimic the effects of tanning in humans without the need for exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation – a breakthrough detailed Tuesday in the journal Cell Reports. While the research is still in […]

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Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer

Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour. Transcriptomic and functional analyses of Kras-independent escapers reveal the presence of Smarcb1–Myc-network-driven mesenchymal reprogramming and independence from MAPK signalling. A somatic mosaic model of PDAC, which allows time-restricted perturbation of cell fate, shows that depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network, driving an anabolic switch that increases protein metabolism and adaptive activation of endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced survival pathways. Increased protein turnover renders mesenchymal sub-populations highly susceptible to pharmacological and genetic perturbation of the cellular proteostatic machinery and the IRE1-α–MKK4 arm of the endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response pathway. Specifically, combination regimens that impair the unfolded protein responses block the emergence of aggressive mesenchymal subpopulations in mouse and patient-derived PDAC models. These molecular and biological insights inform a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting aggressive mesenchymal features of PDAC.

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